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BP Canada: Uncertain Tax Positions and the Importance of Maintaining Privilege
In its recent decision in Minister of National Revenue v. BP Canada Energy Company, the Federal Court of Canada considered the Minister’s ability to compel BP to provide its tax accrual working papers pursuant to the Minister’s inspection powers in subsection 231.1(1) of the Income Tax Act. The decision in favour of the Minister signals a substantial change to the audit process and may require modifications to the way in which corporate taxpayers analyse their uncertain tax positions.
The BP Case
The case concerned an application by the Minister to compel BP to disclose working papers describing BP’s uncertain tax positions. Like other corporations that are required to comply with GAAP, BP prepared these working papers in order to identify reporting issues that could merit adjustment (the “Issues Lists”) and to quantify reserves necessary to account for tax and interest that could become payable. Contrary to a long-standing policy of not exercising her power to request general access to accountants’ working papers, the Minister sought disclosure of BP’s tax accrual working papers for the purpose of providing a roadmap for both current and future audits. BP resisted participation in what it described as a “compulsory self-audit,” (BP Canada, para. 15).
The Court held for the Minister, finding that there was no conscription of BP, as neither the Minister nor the Income Tax Act compelled the creation of the Issues Lists. Rather, the Minister sought disclosure of documents already prepared. Critically, the Court held that it was not a requirement that the Minister need the information in order to conduct the audit, only that the working papers existed and were relevant to BP’s intention in creating the reserves.
The Court rejected BP’s arguments, which it characterized not as an objection to accountability but “to the certainty of accountability that will arise from the disclosure of the Issues Lists” (BP Canada, para. 21). It also did not find compelling BP’s argument that the Minister’s policy constituted discrimination against corporations which are required to prepare financial statements in accordance with GAAP. Instead, the Court preferred the Minister’s argument that, “Where large corporations are taking positions that are on the line, that they are not black and white, these are precisely the types of cases that should ultimately be resolved before the courts” (BP Canada, para. 47).